Friday, August 5, 2016

CHENNAI LEATHER MARKET - AUGUST 2016

CHENNAI LEATHER MARKET

V.M. Khaleelur Rahman

There seems to be no change for the better in the Chennai leather market. Trading continues to be slow as witnessed in recent times. Exporters of leather as well as leather products show interest only for some selected items of high grades for which we have entered into contracts and not for lower selections.

QUOTATIONS OF TANNERS ARE AS FOLLOWS:  

E. I. TANNED GOAT SKINS

Grain Selection:

3/5 sq. ft. Run Rs.90, Fifths Rs.75, IF Rs.65 and LIF Rs.55
5/7 sq. ft. Run Rs.95, Fifths Rs.80, IF Rs.70 and LIF Rs.60 per sq. ft.
4/6 sq. ft. R/V/IF combined Rs.60 per sq. ft.
5/8 sq. ft. R/V/IF combined Rs.67 per sq. ft.

Suede selection:

4/6 sq. ft. All Suede Rs.47 per sq. ft.
5/8 sq. ft. All Suede Rs.50 per sq. ft.

Heel Grip:

4/6 sq. ft. Rs.32 per sq. ft.
5/8 sq. ft. Rs.35 per sq. ft.

Mesh:

4/7 sq. ft. Rs.32 per sq. ft.

Rejection:

3/8 sq. ft. Rs.23 per sq. ft.

Langda:

3 sq. ft. and up Rs. 12 per sq. ft. 

COW FINISHED LEATHERS

Milled light print Rs.65 per sq. ft.
Linings R.60 per sq. ft.

Generally speaking tanners are in a tight corner not knowing how to manage their business. All items such as goat, sheep and hides are slow in movements.

Prices of raw hides and skins have also come down in almost all centres in our country and elsewhere. Only high grade items are of interest to tanners.

Tanners are facing a difficult situation.

EXPORT CONTRACTS

Exporters of leather as well as leather products are trying their best to market their products at the best possible prices as overseas market is slow. Thousands of people are employed in their tanneries and factories and they have no other go except to keep them running.

There are some reports of business in goat upper and lining leathers at around US $ 2.10 and 1.60 per sq. ft. respectively.

In sheep leathers, Japanese customers have done small business in 4/7 sq. ft. All Suede at JY 200 and Rejection at JY 120 per sq. ft.

OFFERS OF EXPORTERS ARE AS FOLLOWS:

F/C sheep leather

All Suede 5/7 sq. ft. JY 225 and 4/7 sq. ft. JY 215 per sq. ft. C&F by sea
Rejection Suede 4/7 sq. ft. JY 125 and 5/8 sq. ft.  JY 135 per sq. ft. C&F by sea

                                      S/C OR F/C GOAT LEATHERS

Material
Size/sq. ft.
Substance
Selection
Price US$ per sq. ft. C&F
Goat upper leather
 4/7
0.6/0.8 mm
ABC/DE
2.15/1.60
Goat milled leather
4/7
0.6/0.8 mm
TR-1/TR-2/TR-3
1.50/1.40/1.30
Goat suede leather
4/7
5/8
0.6/0.8 mm
0.6/0.8 mm
All Suede
2.10
2.20
Goat lining leather

4/7
0.5/0.7 mm
TR-1/TR-2/TR-3
1.60/1.50/1.40
6/9
0.6/0.8 mm
TR-1/2/3
Combined
1.60
                                                       
                                   F/C SHEEP LEATHERS

Material
Size/sq.ft.
Substance
Selection
Price US$ per sq. ft. C&F
Sheep Cabretta leather
4/7
0.6/0.8 mm
ABC
2.10
Sheep Cabretta leather
6/9
0.8/1.00 mm
ABC
2.20
Sheep lining leather
4/7
5/9
0.5/0.7 mm
0.6/0.8 mm
TR-1
TR-1
1.50
1.60

 (Writer’s e-mail id: vmk1234@yahoo.com)

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

Paying tributes to Rashtra Ratna Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam in his first passing away anniversary

In the name of Allah, the beneficent, the merciful

As we all know Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam was a great scientist and spiritual technocrat par excellence. His contribution to the country is immense. He was a great person comparable with none. He was the people’s president when he was in office and even afterwards.

What was the secret of his popularity?

When you speak, speak the truth, perform when you promise, discharge your trust…withhold your hands from striking and from taking that which is unlawful and bad…
Gladden the heart of a human being, feed the hungry, help the afflicted, lighten the sorrow of the sorrowful…….

Dr. Kalam practised the above noble principles of the Prophet (sal-am) in his life and became the darling of the masses.

He strongly believed that all God’s creatures are His family and he is the most beloved of God who tries to do most good to God’s creatures….

His advice to students was:

Dream, Dream, Dream,
Dreams transform into thoughts,
And thoughts result in action.

When Dr. Kalam talked of dreaming, he meant that youngsters should set themselves a goal. He believed that if one firmly believes in something and makes efforts in a focused way, then one can realize his dreams. “Dreams……….is not what we see in sleep but it is the thing which does not let us sleep”. In other words Dr. Kalam wished that youngsters should aim big and work for the country’s transformation.

Why was he so popular with the children? It is because unlike other VIPs he was accessible and made the children feel important. He was never in a hurry to finish the meeting and run away. He encouraged children to ask questions and patiently answered them.

We must be proud that we had Dr. Kalam in our midst in Ambur itself. A delegation led by Mecca Rafeeque Ahmed saheb met Dr. Abdul Kalam in New Delhi when he was the President and invited him to inaugurate the Centenary celebrations of Ambur Muslim Educational Society. He magnanimously accepted it, came to Ambur and inaugurated it on 4th September 2006. That day is green in our memory. The whole of Ambur wore a festive look and the people were so excited and happy.

Dr. A.P. J. Abdul Kalam’s inaugural address impressed everyone. His question-answer session with children was thought provoking and full of encouragement to students. He was determined to mould the minds of the students to work hard to make India a developed nation by 2020.
He strongly believed that it is education which can change ones destiny for the better and make our country a progressive and prosperous one. He considered teaching as the noblest profession.

He was a scientist and a devout Muslim. He was pious in the real sense and got inspiration from the holy Quran. It is said that he never missed his fajr namaz.

Dr. Abdul Kalam will always be remembered for his role as an excellent scientist, as a people’s president, as a good writer and orator and most importantly as a humble and genuine human being.

Dr. Kalam is not with us now but his shining example will always influence us. Let us all pray for his “maghfirat”. May his soul rest in peace.

                                                                           V.M. Khaleelur Rahman,

In the loving memory of Rashtra Ratna Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam


“Kalam sahab was a Rashtra Ratna first and then a Rashtrapati. His vision for the nation was anchored in freedom, development and strength. Dr. Kalam uniquely combined the honesty of a child with the energy of a teenager and the maturity of an adult.”

                                                           Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi

In the loving memory of

Bharat Ratna Late Dr. A.P.J. Abdul kalam

Foundation Stone Laying Ceremony of

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul  Kalam National Memorial    

is to be held on Wednesday, 27th July 2016 at 9.00 a.m. at Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu by 

1.       Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu, Hon’ble Union Minister for Urban Development, Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Minister of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India

2.   Shri Manohar Parrikar, Hon’ble Raksha Mantri, Government of India

In the august presence of

Shri Pon Radhakrishnan, Hon’ble Minister of State, Road Transport, Highways & Shipping, Govt. of India

Dr. Subhash Ramrao Bhamre, Hon’ble Raksha, Govt. of India

Mrs. Nilofer Kafeel, Hon’ble Minister, Labour, Govt. of Tamil Nadu

Dr. M. Manikandan, Hon’ble Minister, Information, Technology, Govt. of Tamil Nadu
Shri A. Anwhar Raajhaa, Hon’ble MP, Ramanathapuram

Organised by

Defence Research & Development Orgnisation,

Ministry of Defence

Ministry of Urban Development

Sunday, July 24, 2016

Chennai based Anjuman-e-Himayath-e-Islam celebrates its 125th Anniversary on 29th, 30th and 31st July 2016

ANJUMAN CELEBRATES 125TH ANNIVERSAY

V.M. Khaleelur Rahman 


We are pleased to know that the Chennai based Anjuman-e-Himayath-e-Islam (AHI) is celebrating its 125th   Anniversary on 29th, 30th and 31st July 2016. 

Mr. T. Rafeeq Ahmed sahib - President, AHI  Mr. G.S.K. Masud sahib - Hon. Secretary, AHI, Mr. H. Azeez Akhtar sahib - Hon. Treasurer, AHI

Mr. K. Ameenur Rahman sahib, Chairman, Celebrations Committee and Mr. G.S.K. Masud sahib, Convenor, Celebrations Committee.

Its inaugural function is to take place on Friday, 29th July 2016, at 7.15 p.m. at the Anjuman Campus, 16, Vijayaraghava Road, T. Nagar, Chennai – 600 017.

Dr. K. Rosaiah, His Excellency, the Governor of Tamil Nadu, will be the Chief Guest and Mr. Habeebullah Badsha, former Advocate General of Tamil Nadu, will preside over the function.
Dr. K. Saleem Ali, former Special Director, CBI, and Mr. N. Ram, Chairman, Kasturi & Sons Ltd.

Programmes of the Celebrations are as under:

1st Session, Saturday, 30th July 2016, 10.30 a.m. to 1.30 p.m.

Education Summit on the theme “The Roadmap for Excellence in Education”.

Maulana Mahmood Madani sahib, General Secretary, Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind, New Delhi will preside over the function and the following eminent personalities will deliver their lectures on the theme of the Sminar:

1.      Mr. Siraj Hussain sahib, IAS (Retd), former Secretary to Government of India
2.      Prof. Khwaja M. Shahid sahib, former Vice Chancellor, Maulana Azad Natiioonal Urdu University, Hyderabad

3.      Prof. Najma Siddiqi sahiba, former Head and Dean, Dept. of Education – University of Delhi
Mr. T.P. Imbichammad is the Chairman and Dr. T. Kamal Sherieff is the Convenor of this Education Summit Committee.

2nd Session, Saturday, 30th July 2016, 3.30 p.m. to 6.30 p.m.

Empowerment of Women – Ladies Session exclusively for ladies

Mrs. Qudsia Gandhi, IAS (Retd) will preside over the session and the following eminent personalities will speak on the subject of the session:

            1.      Mrs. Akhila Srinivasan, Managing Director of Shriram Investments Ltd.
2.      Mrs. Sumaiya Naumani, Principal, Madrasa-e-Kathijathul Kubra
3.      Mrs. Preetha Reddy, Managing Director, Apollo Hospitals Group

Mrs. Zubeida Asghar Ali Dhala is the Chairperson and Mrs. Farida Majid is the Convenor of the Ladies Committee.

3rd Session, Saturday, 30th July 2016, 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m.         

Role of a Muslim in a Diverse Society

Mr. M. Mohammed Hashim sahib, Chairman, K.H. Group of Companies, will preside over the session.

1.      Maulana Mahmood Madani sahib will speak in Urdu and
2.      Dr. Farida Khanam, Islamic Scholar and Associate Editor, Spirit of Islam, will speak in English.

Mr. T. P. Imbichammad sahib is the Chairman and Mr. Kaka Anees Ahmed sahib is the Convenor of Religious Session Committee.
               4th Session, Sunday, 31st July 2016, 12.15 p.m.
Valedictory Function

Mr. U. Mohammed Khalilullah sahib, President, Muslim Educational Association of Southern India will preside over the session. 

Hon’ble Justice Mr. F.M. Ibrahim Kalifulla sahib, Judge, Supreme Court of India, will be the Chief Guest.

Mr. K. Ameenur Rahman sahib is the Chairman and Mr. G.S.K. Masud sahib is the Convenor of the Celebrations Committee.

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CULTURAL PROGRAMME

The Valedictory Function on the 31st of July  will be preceded by a Cultural Programme being organised by the boys and girls of the Anjuman Matriculatiion School and Al-Hira Model School between 10.30 a.m. and 12.00 noon.  

5th Session, Sunday, 31st July 2016, 2.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m.

A Grand Carnival

Mr. Shakeel Akthar sahib, IPS, Chairman, Police Housing Board Corporation, will be the Chief Guest.

Mr. Asghar Ali Dhala sahib is the Chairman and Mr. Safdar H. Chowdry is the Convenor of the Sports/Carnival Committee.

ISLAMIC AND EDUCATIONAL EXHIBITION

An Islamic and Educational Exhibition will be formally declared open during the Inaugural function on the 29thof July 2016 in the evening and will be on until the close of the Celebrations on the 31st July 2016.
While a unique Islamic themed air-conditioned pavilion will be the highest of this Exhibition, the Anjuman and Al-Hira Schools, Academy for Women and other units of the AHI have all made elaborate arrangements to exhibit the talents of their students in subjects as varied as Arts, Science, Craft etc.
All our esteemed invitees are requested to please visit this unique, one of its kind Exhibition which will be open throughout the course of the Celebrations.
un
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A GRAND ALL INDIA MUSHAIRA

 A Grand All India Mushaira featuring eminent poets from across the country will be held on Saturday, 30th July 2016 from 10.00 p.m. onwards at the Anjuman Campus under the chairmanship of the noted poet Dr. Prof. Waseem Barelvi

Mr. A. Mohammed Ashraf sahib is the Chairman and Mr. Mohammed Athaur Rahman sahib is the Convenor of the Mushaira Commigttee

We wish the Anjuman all the best. 

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

Uniform Civil Code : Now is not the moment

NOW IS NOT THE MOMENT


K. KANNAN

A Uniform Civil Code, if brought in now, will be perceived as an apology for hegemony of Hindu laws over the personal laws applicable to Muslims and Christians — and justifiably so

It is reported that the Union Law Minister has requested the Law Commission to examine the feasibility of ushering in a Uniform Civil Code. In all the debate about the Code, there is an assumption that it will pave way for national integration. The imperatives are traced to the constitutional provision of Article 44 that exhorts it as among the Directive Principles of State Policy.
There are several provisions in the Constitution which are transitory, such as the number of years of provision for reservation of seats for representation in the Parliament and the Legislative Assemblies (Article 334), the time frame when Hindi will substitute English as the lingua franca for official purposes (Article 343), and the special status to Jammu and Kashmir (Article 370). The withdrawal of special status to Kashmir in the present atmosphere will be an invitation to anarchy; reserved constituencies are absolutely essential for several more years to assure adequate political space for the Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes; Hindi has still very little currency in the southern States.
The Uniform Civil Code, if brought in now, will be perceived as an apology for hegemony of the Hindu laws over the personal laws applicable to Muslims and Christians, and justifiably so. To B.R. Ambedkar at the time of initiating the dialogue and finalising the draft of the Constitution, it was the obvious choice, for he saw no merit in the role of religion in its application to personal laws. The truth is that personal laws are what we confront in our personal lives from birth to death, viz. laws of marriage, maintenance, adoption, custody, guardianship of children and succession. Religion is the first affinity at birth and it is carried through at one’s will through the laws that we recognise as personal to him/her. If we withdraw the personal laws by force, we trench upon the most intimate emotion of an individual. The argument often offered is that every other country does not have different personal laws, so why have it? Ask this question instead: we have different personal laws, how does it denigrate our national solidity? Any talk on Uniform Civil Code must come at such a time and in such a way that we have gradually moved towards assimilation of the very best from each of the personal law systems that exist.
Judicial interpretations as a tool

There is no one personal law which is complete and just in itself. What we cannot achieve through forced legislation, we are slowly achieving by seamless transition through secular laws. For instance, opposition to a private bill for uniform adoption law was thrown out by loud protests in Parliament some years ago. The apprehension of the Muslim community was that concepts alien to its socio-religious practices will march one after another if change in legislation is permitted in one field. It was a prospect of suffering forced indignity that was the cause for the opposition. The opposition by Christians was no less vociferous. When adoption was made possible through the Juvenile Justice Act, the Bombay and Madras High Courts adopted dynamic interpretations to hold that adoption under the Act will be applicable to Christians as well. Soon enough the Supreme Court ruled that Muslims could also adopt under the Act. Not a whimper of protest from any community!
Guardianship laws for Hindus and Muslims carry a bias towards the father as the natural guardian to a minor child. Judicial pronouncements on the paramount welfare consideration of the child and the decision in the Githa Hariharan case have largely straightened the slant and recognised the pre-eminent importance of a mother as a guardian irrespective of the age of the child, even beyond five or seven years of age. Where there have been seeming inequities in the application of laws for provision for maintenance being restricted only for the period of iddat for divorced Muslim women and the ease of dissolution of marriage through pronouncement of talaq, they have changed largely due to judicial pronouncements. Now under the law of the land, a divorced Muslim woman is entitled to provision for maintenance for a lifetime or until she is remarried, which shall be made within the period of iddat (Danial Latifi v. Union of India, 2001) — a long distance travelled from the attempt to annul the effect of the Supreme Court judgment in Shah Bano’s case by the enactment of the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986; talaq shall not be valid unless preceded by an effort at rapprochement and strict rules of evidence about the pronouncement itself (Shamim Ara v. State of U.P., 2002). These judgments have blunted the injustice against whimsical acts of husbands.
Comparing personal laws

Look at the sheer superiority of some of the laws of one community over another. Take the law of succession. Under the Hindu Succession Act, the mother is a Class I heir and the father has no place in the presence of the widow and children. Under the Indian Succession Act, applicable to Christians, in the absence of lineal descendents, the father is an heir along with the widow and not the mother. Do you think that the law is unfair to the father in one case and to the mother in the other? Look at the Muslim law. Both the father and mother are primary heirs. Again, the grant of absolute right to property by succession to a female was not accepted for Hindus till 1956 when Section 14 assured such a right. This provision is the most abused provision by several machinations through pleas of oral partition, oral release, ouster and other things, by the male members of a Hindu family. This provision has probably generated the maximum litigation, the cause being the unwillingness of the Hindu patriarchy to cede to a female member an equal right in the property. Muslim law recognised full right to a woman since the days of Prophet Muhammad, several centuries before the whole of the modern West accorded to a woman property rights.
Examine the law of testamentary succession. Many of the litigations in court are fallouts of heartburn over disinheritance of widows or preference of sons over daughters. It is the unrestricted power of disposition through will that causes many a contest to the dispositions. Muslim law does not allow a bequest to more than a one-third outside-the-line succession without the concurrence of natural heirs and up to a two-thirds share with the consent of natural heirs. In the law applied in Puducherry as well as in Goa, where the Code Civil was applicable, the principle of legitime or quotité disponible caused a fetter to unlimited disposition and reserved a share compulsorily to legal heirs outside the power of disposition. Notwithstanding these salutary provisions, let us assume that the Indian Succession Act imposes a fetter of disposition through will to one-third or two-thirds as the case may be in the manner that the Muslim law recognises. What will be the first reaction? You will hear murmurs of minority appeasement instead of recognising it objectively as the desirable goal of litigation reduction and equitable distribution. The Bombay High Court has opined Section 15 of the Hindu Succession Act, preferring parents-in-law as heirs through husband to parents as heirs to a deceased woman, to be unconstitutional and called to aid the more just provisions under the Indian Succession Act applicable to Christians.
Marriage as a contract under Muslim law is more secular than retention of the concept of the marital bond as a sacrament in the Hindu and Christian communities. The provisions for divorce by mutual consent that have been introduced in the Hindu Marriage Act or under the Divorce Act applicable to Christians are actually a movement towards the Muslim understanding of marriages. Do you think that allowing up to four wives for Muslims requires a change? Shall we in the same breath make illegal even consensual adult relationships outside marriage or concubinage as cognisable offences?
Gradual changes, the way forward

The dynamics of social transformation through the instrument of law from diverse civil code to uniformity shall be gradual and cannot happen in a day. We cannot perhaps set a time limit but India shall be stronger by its multi-cultural, multi-religious differences and our national identity would be more secure in its diverse form than through a forced homogeneity of all personal laws. That shall take place by borrowing freely from laws of each other, making gradual changes in each of the pieces of legislation, making judicial pronouncements that assure gender equality, and adopting expansive interpretations for broadening the outlook relating to marriage, maintenance, adoption and succession by specifically acknowledging the benefit that one community secures from the other. Take up reforms in each personal law through independent initiatives, and we will have created laws that are uniform over a period of time. On this issue, what is seemingly centrist is ultra-right and what could be perceived as conservative is the balanced centre.
K. Kannan is a former judge of the Punjab and Haryana High Court.
(Courtesy: The Hindu dated 13th July 2016) 

Thursday, July 7, 2016

The Message of Eid al Fitr

Eid al Fitr is celebrated on the first day of Shawwal, the month that follows Ramazan. Muslims start the day with an obligatory contribution called zakat al fitr in which prosperous families give away, for each member of the house, food items such as rice or wheat to the needy. This is followed by thanksgiving congregational prayers in mosques and open spaces. Although it is a time of rejoicing and festivity, the most positive act on this day would be to resolve to uphold the teachings of the Koran. Ramazan is hallowed as the revelation of the divine Book began during this month. Its recitation throughout Ramazan in late-night prayers is a reminder to follow it.

The two most important mandates of the Koran that the Prophet wanted Muslims to honour, especially during Ramazan, are social conscience and peace. The importance he gave to the idea of fellow-feeling is beautifully captured in a hadees. It states that even for a man who was recognised as the most benevolent of his times, the Prophet’s acts of goodness (khairaat) in Ramazan reached the level of a “gusty wind” (reehil mursalat).

In emphasising peace, the Prophet warned his followers against indulging in violence or verbal abuse. A report in Sahih Bukhari quotes him as saying that whosoever does not give up evil speech and deeds, Allah is not in need of his abstinence from food and drink. Certain recent acts demonstrate the extent to which such teachings have been abandoned by some. An overwhelming majority of Muslims is peace-loving. It falls upon this moderate generality to renew its pledge to spread that peaceful message.

A. Faizur Rahman

(Courtesy: The Hindu dated 6th July 2016)


Sunday, July 3, 2016

CHENNAI LEATHER MARKET - JULY 2016

CHENNAI LEATHER MARKET

V.M. Khaleelur Rahman

There seems to be no big change in the Chennai leather market.  Movements are slow.  In tanned goat skins while there is demand for higher selections including lining items by big exporters of leather and leather products, it cannot be said for lower selections. Prices are as indicated below:

E. I. Tanned Goat Skins:

Grain Selection:

5/8 sq. ft. Run Rs.95, Fifths Rs.80, IF Rs.70 and LIF Rs.60 per sq. ft.
4/6 sq. ft. R/V/IF combined Rs.60 per sq. ft.
5/8 sq. ft. R/V/IF combined Rs.67 per sq. ft.

Suede selection:

4/6 sq. ft. All Suede Rs.48 per sq. ft.
5/8 sq. ft. All Suede Rs.50 per sq. ft.

Heel Grip:

4/6 sq. ft. Rs.33 per sq. ft.
5/8 sq. ft. Rs.37 per sq. ft.

Mesh:

4/8 sq. ft. Rs.32 per sq. ft.

Rejection:

3/8 sq. ft. Rs.22 per sq. ft.

Langda:

3/8 sq. ft. Rs. 12 per sq. ft.  or Rs.150 per kg.

As far as E.I. Tanned and Wet blue sheep skins are concerned, tanners are finding it difficult to sell. Here market is very slow.

Even in the raw skin centres throughout the country only some selected items of higher selections in both goat and sheep skins are on the move at reasonable prices depending on the quality and selection but lower selections have no takers. Other items such as cow and buffalo hides are also slow in movements and prices are down in lower selections.

Tanners say that the present market is very unfavourable to say the least. Financial crunch is very much there in the market.

Overseas Market

Overseas demand is also slow.  Exporters of leather as well as leather products continue to find it difficult to obtain big orders. Only some leading exporters are somehow managing.  There are also reports of claims by foreign importers. It is said that because of unfavourable market, some unscrupulous overseas customers particularly in some areas of Italy want to be benefited by lodging claims on some pretext or other.  Small exporters are the worst sufferers.

There are reports of some stray business for Japan and that too in lower selections at either unchanged or slightly reduced prices. Exporters are offering their products at the best possible prices to attract business.

Export offers are at around the following prices:  

F/C sheep leather

All Suede 5/7 sq. ft. JY 230 and 4/7 sq. ft. JY 220 per sq. ft. C&F by sea
Rejection Suede 4/7 sq. ft. JY 130 and 5/8 sq. ft.  JY 140 per sq. ft. C&F by sea

                                      S/C OR F/C GOAT LEATHERS

Material
Size/sq. ft.
Substance
Selection
Price US$ per sq. ft. C&F
Goat upper leather
3/5 or 4/7
0.6/0.8 mm
ABC/DE
2.20/1.65
Goat milled leather
4/7
0.6/0.8 mm
TR-1/TR-2/TR-3
1.55/1.45/1.35
Goat suede leather
4/7
5/8
0.6/0.8 mm
0.6/0.8 mm
All Suede
2.10
2.20
Goat lining leather

4/7
0.5/0.7 mm
TR-1/TR-2/TR-3
1.60/1.50/1.40
6/9
0.6/0.8 mm
TR-1/2/3
Combined
1.60
                                                       
                                   F/C SHEEP LEATHERS

Material
Size/sq.ft.
Substance
Selection
Price US$ per sq. ft. C&F
Sheep Cabretta leather
4/7
0.6/0.8 mm
ABC
2.20
Sheep Cabretta leather
6/9
0.8/1.00 mm
ABC
2.40
Sheep lining leather
4/7
5/9
0.5/0.7 mm
0.6/0.8 mm
TR-1
TR-1
1.55
1.65

 (Writer’s e-mail id: vmk1234@yahoo.com)